Sunday, May 24, 2020
A hawk bell (also called hawking or hawks bell) is a small round object made of sheet brass or copper, originally used as part of falconry equipment in medieval Europe. Hawk bells were also brought to the American continents by early European explorers and colonizers in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries as potential trade goods. When they are found in Mississippian contexts in the southern United States, hawk bells are considered evidence for direct or indirect Mississippian contact with early European expeditions such as those by Hernando de Soto, PÃ ¡nfilo de NavÃ ¡ez, or others. Bells and Medieval Falconry The original use of hawk bells was, of course, in falconry. Hawking, the use of trained raptors to capture wild game, is an elite sport that was established throughout Europe no later than AD 500. The primary raptor used in hawking was peregrine and gyrfalcon, but they were only owned by the highest ranked individuals. The lower nobility and wealthier commoners practiced falconry with the goshawk and sparrow hawk. Hawking bells were part of the equipment of the medieval falconer, and they were attached in pairs to one of the birds legs by a short leather leash, called a bewit. Other hawking paraphernalia included leather leads called jesses, lures, hoods and gloves. The bells are necessarily made of light material, weighing no more than seven grams (1/4 ounce). Hawk bells found on archaeological sites are larger, although no more than 3.2 centimeters (1.3 inches) in diameter. Historical Evidence Spanish historical records dated to the 16th century describe the use of hawking bells (in Spanish: cascabeles grandes de bronce or large brass hawking bells) as trade items, along with iron knives and scissors, mirrors, and glass beads as well as clothing, maize and cassava. Although bells are not specifically mentioned in the de Soto chronicles, they were distributed as trade goods by several different Spanish explorers, including PÃ ¡nfilo de NavÃ ¡ez, who gave bells to Dulchanchellin, a Mississippian chief in Florida, in 1528; and Pedro MenÃ ©ndez de Aviles, who in 1566 presented Calusa headmen with bells among other objects. Because of this, in the southern half of what is today the United States, hawk bells are often cited as evidence of the PÃ ¡nfilo de NavÃ ¡ez and Hernando de Soto expeditions of the mid-16th century. Types of Bells Two types of hawk bells have been identified within the American continents: the Clarksdale bell (generally dated to the 16th century) and the Flushloop bell (generally dated to the 17th-19th centuries), both named by American archaeologists, rather than the original manufacturer. The Clarksdale bell (named after the Clarksdale Mound in Mississippi where the type bell was found) is made up of two undecorated copper or brass hemispheres crimped together and secured by a square flange around the midsection. At the base of the bell are two holes connected by a narrow slit. The wide loop (often 5 cm [~2 in] or better) at the top is secured by pushing the ends through a hole in the upper hemisphere and soldering the separate ends to the interior of the bell. The Flushloop bell has a thin strip of brass for an attachment loop, which was secured by pushing the ends of the of the loop through a hole in the bell and separating them. The two hemispheres were soldered rather than crimped together, leaving little or no surficial flange. Many specimens of the Flushloop bell have two decorative grooves encircling each hemisphere. Dating the Hawk Bell In general, Clarksdale type bells are the rarer formÃ and tend to be discovered in earlier contexts. Most date to the 16th century, although there are exceptions. Flushloop bells are generally dated in the 17th century or later, with the majority dated 18th and 19th century. Ian Brown has argued that Flushloop bells are of English and French manufacture, while the Spanish are the source of the Clarksdale. Clarksdale bells have been found in many historic Mississippian sites throughout the southern United States, such as Seven Springs (Alabama), Little Egypt and Poarch Farm (Georgia), Dunns Creek (Florida), Clarksdale (Mississippi), Toqua (Tennessee); as well as at Nueva Cadiz in Venezuela.Ã Sources Boyd CC, Jr., and Schroedl GF. 1987. In Search of Coosa. American Antiquity 52(4):840-844. Brown IW. 1979. Bells. In: Brain JP, editor. Tunica Treasure. Cambridge: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard Univesity. p 197-205. Mitchem JM, and McEwan BG. 1988. New data on early bells from Florida. Southeastern Archaeology 7(1):39-49. Prummel W. 1997. Evidence of hawking (falconry) from bird and mammal bones. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 7(4):333-338. Sears WH. 1955. Creek and Cherokee Culture in the 18th Century. American Antiquity 21(2):143-149. Thibodeau AM, Chesley JT, and Ruiz J. 2012. Lead isotope analysis as a new method for identifying material culture belonging to the VÃ ¡zquez de Coronado expedition. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(1):58-66.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Teaching fractions can often seem like a daunting task. You may hear many the groan or sigh when you open a book to the section on fractions. This does not have to be the case. In fact,Ã most students will not dread a topic once they feel confident working with the concept.Ã The concept of a Ã¢â¬Å"fractionÃ¢â¬ is abstract. Visualizing apart versus a whole is a developmental skill not fully grasped by some students until middle or high school. There are a few ways to get yourÃ class embracing fractions, and there are a number of worksheets you can print out to nail the concept home for your students. Make Fractions Relatable Children, in fact, students of all ages prefer a hands-on demonstration or an interactive experience to pencil-and-paper math equations. You can get felt circles to make pie graphs, you can play with fraction dice, or even use a set of dominoes to help explain the concept of fractions. If you can, order an actual pizza. Or, if you happen to celebrate a class birthday,Ã well perhapsÃ make it a fraction birthday cake. When you engage the senses, you have a higher engagement of the audience. Also, the lesson has a great chance of permanence, too. You can print fraction circles so your students can illustrate fractions as they learn. Have them touch the felt circles, let them watch you create a felt circle pie representing a fraction, ask your class to color in the corresponding fraction circle. Then, ask your class to write the fraction out. Have Fun with Math As we all know, not every student learns the same way. Some children are better at visual processing than auditory processing. Others prefer tactile learning with hand-held manipulatives or may prefer games. Games make what could be a dry and boring topic more fun and interesting. They provide that visual component that mightÃ make all the difference.Ã There are plenty of online teaching tools with challenges for your students to use.Ã Let them practice digitally. Online resources can help solidify concepts. Fraction Word Problems A problem is, by definition, a situation that causes perplexity. A primary tenet of teaching through problem-solving is that students confronted with real-life problems are forced into a state of needing to connect what they know with the problem at hand. Learning through problem-solving develops understanding. A students mental capacity grows more complex with time. Solving problems can force them to think deeply and to connect, extend, and elaborate on their prior knowledge.Ã Common Pitfall Sometimes you can spend too much time teaching fraction concepts, like simplify, find the common denominators, use the four operations, that we often forget the value of word problems. Encourage students to apply their knowledge of fraction concepts through problem-solving and word problems.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Michelle Walk Music 174 Impact presentation Ã¢â¬Å"Music can name the unnamable and communicate the unknowable. Ã¢â¬ Leonard Bernstein Leonard Bernstein was born August 25, 1918. Now usually, one would not look for a birth date, rather death. We will write a custom essay sample on Leonard Bernstein Impact or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is treasured because, what is truly important is not only ones life; but also and especially, our founders of music and arts. His death date was October 14, 1990. This presents us with the ideal window of what he achieved during his life span. But, for all the years that Bernstein was in profession, no span of time could successfully capture just how much he has contributed to music as a society and art. Bernstein was a proud graduate of Harvard in 1939 (with prior knowledge in two other institutes of learning), landing him a job just a short year later. Coincidentally, his first career landed him as assistant conductor in the New York Philharmonic in 1940. He had the opportunity to substitute an ill Bruno Walter at Carnegie Hall; which he vicariously accepted, producing instant critical praises. Soon after, various musicians worldwide were pleading him to be a guest conductor at their performances. One in his era may also recognize (following his jumpstarted career) his first successful large scale piece as: Symphony No. Jeremiah (in just 1943). Being the New York Philharmonic conductor remains one of his most important contributions to music. One of the most vital periods in his career was 1958-1969 where he produced over 300 out of 400 or more lifetime pieces, in just 11 years. Specifically, the young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s concerts with the New York philharmonic was a televised show tha t ran for 11 seasons. He inspired the fledgling generations to procure music in their everyday lives with a passion, and also presented audiences to live music programs. He led this into the PhilharmonicÃ¢â¬â¢s center stage for works, and focused on a strong educational mission to blend with the music. In addition, he produced and performed more concerts with the NY Philharmonic than any conductor before himself. Bernstein also had the great opportunity to direct at the premiere of the Philharmonic Hall, which is now Avery Fisher hall in the Lincoln Center in NY! Two very large musical compositions of BernsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s were: he directed all the music for the original play Ã¢â¬Å"west side storyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"CandideÃ¢â¬ . These 1900-American-Opera creations introduced a new idea to scriptwriters. It combined (what is referred to as) opera and jazz swings to create this new notion. Through the music and its sole style, it revealed character and social consciousness. Both received critical acclaim and many other plays of his were turned to famous films. Many of his concepts were rooted in his (returnings) to his previous places of study. This includes but is not limited to returning to teach classes and lectures. He did this a lot at Tanglewood, MA. Even throughout all his praise and review, he remained a virtuous man through his travels. Bernstein was the first American in Milan to conduct an opera. Not only was he appraised by his co-workers, yet he was friends with many of his musical rivals, and best friends with Aaron Copland. Also, he was one of the leading advocates of American composers, such as lifelong friend Copland. Various opportunities such as these helped him to receive his life title of Laureate Conductor. He also received an international prize in 1990 which he used all the money to fund Bernstein Education through Arts, a school for the passionate young student. Several Philharmonics in the world still hold a Beethoven/Bernstein festival in such conductorÃ¢â¬â¢s honors. In 1985, the National Academy of Recreational Arts and Sciences rewarded him for lifetime achievement. Many viewers absolutely adored Bernstein through this aspect, as well the fact that he engaged almost all of his audiences in his performances. Daughter of Bernstein, Jamie Bernstein always had a positive comment about her Ã¢â¬Å"Ambitious? Ã¢â¬ [Yes, she did use the question mark] father. Ã¢â¬Å"In the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, Bernstein [Ã¢â¬ ¦] back into a student again [to prepare Charles Eliot Norton lectures] at Harvard. He immersed himself in Chomskyan linguistics, absorbing an entire new field of knowledge, [Ã¢â¬ ¦] apply the principles of linguistics to music Ã¢â¬â thereby creating a brand new field of study, and turning himself back into a teacher again in the process. Ambitious? Oh, yes! Was he in over his head? Completely! He was never happier than he was in those 18 months on the Harvard campus, reveling in his dual roles as student and teacher. Ã¢â¬ What does this mean explicitly? That Bernstein was not only a successful composer and avid musician, but a powerful teacher and enthusiast of the music of his time, and past times as well. In his memory, he can be enthused with 20 Grammy awards on top of his numerous achievements including writing two books, three plays, even appearing on a postage stamp. But of course what remains important are his 400 or more composed pieces in his days. Sources WORKS CITED: (direct quotation within text and consulted) Bernstein, Jamie. Ã¢â¬Å"Leonard Bernstein: a Born Teacher. Ã¢â¬ Educator. (2008): n. page. Web. 24 Sep. 2012. ;lt;http://www. leonardbernstein. com/educator. htm;gt;. Ã¢â¬Å"Leonard Bernstein. Ã¢â¬ BrainyQuote. com. Xplore Inc, 2012. 24 September 2012. http://www. brainyquote. om/quotes/authors/l/leonard_bernstein. html (within title of document) WORKS CONSULTED: Schiff, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Bernstein, Leonard in Oxford Music Online. Ã¢â¬ Bernstein, Leonard. (2008): n. page. Web. 24 Sep. 2012. ;lt;http://www. oxfordmusiconline. com. ezproxy. uwc. edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/02883? q=leonard bernstein;amp;search=quick;amp;pos=1;amp;_start=1;gt;. Sputnik, Dr. Ã ¢â¬Å"Leonard Bernstein. Ã¢â¬ (2012): n. page. Web. 24 Sep. 2012. ;lt;http://www. nndb. com/people/532/000031439/;gt;. Ã¢â¬ Leonard Bernstein. Ã¢â¬ 2012. Biography. com 24 Sep 2012, 10:33 http://www. biography. com/people/leonard-bernstein-9210269 How to cite Leonard Bernstein Impact, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Alright Inkers, this is going to be a relatively short review as there have only been teasers released by Danny Worsnops new band, Harlot. The infamous front man of the popular metal-core/screamo band, Asking Alexandria, is known for his killer screams and controversial lifestyle, so when I heard of his new side project, I had to give it a listen. In all honesty, I was expecting an Asking spin off with the exact same break downs and the exact same riffs with electronica interludes. Man, was I surprised and this is the only time Ive actually been ecstatic to be 100% wrong. Heads up, buddy can sing like nobodys business. Danny really, truly can sing like nothing Ive ever heard and, coming from a music junkie like me, thats saying something. Hes got a real grit to his voice that keeps with the rock and roll sound we all crave. We will write a custom essay sample on Danny Worsnop by Harlot or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But more so, theres actual soul and passion in his voice that is all but gone in the rock industry. If you dont have soul or a passion for what you do, you shouldnt be doing it. Danny, that lovely gent is a true musician, and an exemplary one at that. Gone are the days of senseless screaming and pounding on defenseless instruments. Now rising are the good old days of rock and roll hailed by the new guard. Here is my prediction for Mr. Worsnops future: Asking Alexandria ( as much as this pains me to say) is very well on their way out. And, as much as I love them and cling desperately to my beloved Stand Up and Scream album, they may very well soon be but a memory. While that sounds cold and very un-fan like of me to say, Asking seems to be dwindling and losing relevancy in todays music scene. I feel that is partially due to the fact that real, honest musicality isnt really their focus and the soul isnt there anymore. It pains me to watch this happen (particularly because i havent eve n seen them live yet), but i realize that it is ultimately inevitable. However, I predict that the year following the release of Harlots first album will hail the dawn of a new era for Danny and his music. The first album is going to blow up and this band will be even bigger and better than its predecessor. Just watch. We are about to see very great things from Mr. Worsnop.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
On March fourth, 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected President of the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson was a Republican. Republicans strongly supported farmers, and they wanted an agrarian nation. An agrarian nation means some changes had to be made in the country. The country needed strong trade with other countries, and they also needed more land to farm on. This led to the Louisiana Purchase. The French owned a huge amount of land west of the United States. Inside all of this land was the mouth of the Mississippi River, New Orleans. Because the Republicans wanted a farming nation, America needed a port like New Orleans. Jefferson didn't think that Napoleon would sell all of this land, but he asked him anyway if he was willing to sell. To his surprise Napoleon did want to sell this land because he needed more money for his fight with Great Britain. So Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory, and doubled the nation's size. This purchase was a mastermind move by Jefferson that let the farming nation trade using the whole Mississippi. Another achievement of Thomas Jefferson was the exploration of the Louisiana Territory. He hired Lewis and Clark to explore the uncharted territory. He told them to search the land for a river passage to the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson also told them to keep diaries and make maps. This was Clark's task. In May, 1804, forty-four men set out on the expedition. The travelers tried to be friendly with the Indians on their way. When they reached North Dakota they hired the French trapper Toussaint Charbonneau, and his wife Sacajawea to be guides and interpreters. With them they traveled all the way to the Pacific Coast and back. Even though many people were disappointed upon their return that they had not found an all water route, Lewis and Clark were the first to map most of this land we call America. They also aroused an interest in the people to move westward in the growing nation. Let's go back a little bit to when Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States. He needed money to fight in the war he was having with Great Britain. Since the United States had a small military, it did not want to be involved in the French-British War. America tried to stay neutral while trading with Europe, but France and Great Britain kept on violating their neutrality rights. The United States kept on trying to trade, but both sides put blockades on each others ports. This meant that the other countries took their ships. The British, however, not only took their ships, but they also impressed American sailors. During all of this mayhem President Madison came to power. Because of Britain's violations of America's sailors, he asked congress to declare war against Britain. Congress voted yes to the war. Afterwards, it was named the War of 1812. After two years of fighting, General Andrew Jackson came out victorious. A treaty was signed in Belgium, and the growing nation finally earned a little respect. They did this by changing the attitude of the Europeans towards them. Following the War of 1812, Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1828 and won. Jackson is said to be the first western president. President Jackson was odd in a the way he sided with states on some things and on other things he did not. He wanted to remove the Indians, get rid of the National Bank, and in 1828 he let a tariff pass that taxed imports. This angered Vice President Callhoon, and other people from South Carolina who said it was unfair. The consequence was that South Carolina nullified the tariff, Callhoon resigned, and South Carolina threatened to form their own government. Even though the Civil War wasn't until many years later, this was a sign of internal conflict that could threaten the growth of the country. Part of the reason that there was this internal conflict was that our nation was growing very rapidly, and each area of the country had huge differences. For example I will take political parties. The Republicans were farmers. They wanted a farming nation much like the South was. The Federalists were much different being from New England. They supported industry and manufacturing goods. An example of party differences is that of the Whisky Rebellion. In this the Federalists who were in power at the time past a law which put a twenty-five percent tax on whisky. This angered Republican farmers who turned their grain into whisky. A full scale revolt came out of this which threatened the ever-changing young country. Another difference was
Saturday, March 7, 2020
The Cross-Cultural Management Implications for a UK Manager Undertaking an International Business Assignment to another Country The WritePass Journal
The Cross-Cultural Management Implications for a UK Manager Undertaking an International Business Assignment to another Country Abstract The Cross-Cultural Management Implications for a UK Manager Undertaking an International Business Assignment to another Country [online]).Ã China is large, both in terms of size (3.7 million square miles) and population (1.3 billion).Ã Ã Its capital is Beijing, and its population largely (92%) Han Chinese, with the remainder 55 different ethnic minority groups. Although officially an atheist country, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Daoism are practiced.Ã Mandarin is the main language, although there are a number of local dialects, and the currency is the Yuan or Renminbi (Foreign and Commonwealth Office 2012 [online]). ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s communist government have, over the last 30 years, brought about substantial change to bring about market-oriented economic systems (Gore 2011) in order to deliver the prosperity that it seemed the Marxist system could not provide (Grant 2005). The transformation has been built upon the large workforce, offering the possibility of cheap labour and hence low-cost manufacturing. It has seen economic reforms which have meant China have become a force in the global business market (Brandt and Rawski 2006).Ã China is, however, culturally very different from the UK, and in order to conduct business successfully it is essential to understand these differences and the impact on management. 2. Cross-Cultural Theorists Two theorists, Hofstede and Trompenaars, are particularly useful for understanding the differences between cultures. Hofstede has been very influential in contemporary management theory attempts to understand cross-cultural differences. His ideas were rooted in a large scale study of IBM (Matsumoto and Juang 2012), and involve five different dimensions which characterise a nation.Ã Each country has a different value for each dimension, and a unique picture of the cultural nature of that country is built up through all five dimensions. The five dimensions are power distance, individualism / collectivism, masculinity / femininity, degree of uncertainty avoidance, and time orientationÃ (Hofstede 1984).Ã Ã Power distance concerns the extent to which people are happy with an unequal society, and the extent to which the society is hierarchical with a large gap between the powerful and those without power.Ã A low power distance country, for example, would be more egalitarianis m and intolerant of power imbalance.Ã Ã Ã Ã Individualism / collectivism refers to the extent to which people think of themselves as individuals or as part of a group.Ã Ã Individualistic societies are competitive and value creativity for example (Phillips and Gully 2011).Ã The dimension of masculinity and femininity expresses the extent to which the culture displays predominantly masculine values: gender roles are clearly defined, assertiveness and striving are praised. In a feminine culture roles are more fluid and more caring values respected (Tian 2004). Uncertainty avoidance refers to how comfortable people are with ambiguity. Cultures high on this like rules and regulationsÃ (Sorrentino 2005).Ã Ã Interestingly for the context of this report, HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s final dimension was based on data collected from China, with the help of Michael Harris Bond (Berry et al 1997).Ã Ã Time orientation concerns the way in which people think about time, with a d istinction between short-term and long-term orientation. Cultures which are short-term oriented life in the moment, while long-term cultures are strong on planning (Daft and Marcic 2010). Trompenaars (1993) model can be seen as a development of HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. He suggested seven different dimensions, again based on a large-scale study across many different countries. These dimensions cover three main areas: how people relate to others, their perceptions of time, and their experiences of the environment (Lane 2004).Ã The seven dimensions overlap with HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s dimensions to some extent, with some being very similar and others new.Ã The dimensions he specifies are: Universal v. particular: whether the society is organised around set rules and procedures or whether the needs of the individuals come first Individual v. collectivism: whether people predominantly act for themselves or think about the group Affective v. neutral: whether people are predominantly demonstrative emotionally, or are controlled and rational Specific v. diffuse: whether organisational systems determine employee behaviour, or systems arise out of the needs and perspectives of individuals. Achievement v. ascription: whether achievement or background, education and other fixed variables assumed to be important about people Sequential v. synchronous: whether time is seen fixed and linear or flexible and open Internal v. external control: whether people believe that nature can be controlled through human will, or human beings are part of nature and subject to its laws. (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner 2004). While Trompenaars is clearly influenced by HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s work, Hofstede has criticised the former for lacking the intellectual rigour he believes the five dimensional model possesses.Ã Hofstede has also attracted criticism, for example that five dimensions are inadequate to fully capture the complexity of cultural differences (Browaeys and Price 2008).Ã Despite criticisms, however, both these models are useful to help understand how cultures differ from each other, and will influence the next section. 3. Discussion / Analysis According to Hofstede (Geert-hofstede.com 2012 [online]) (see appendix), China and the UK show fairly different cultural styles. They are, however, identical for masculinity / femininity (66) and near-identical for uncertainty avoidance.Ã Ã Both the UK and China tend towards masculinity in society, with drivenness and competition valued. Additionally, both are low for uncertainty avoidance, in other words, both societies are happy with ambiguity and believe rules should be followed flexibly and selectively. Both societies are adaptable, which encourages entrepreneurship. China is higher than the UK for power distance (80 v. 35), that is, China is comfortable with hierarchy, power structure and wide gaps between people. There is more likelihood of abuse of power, and authority is important. Aspiration above ones status is unacceptable.Ã Ã Ã Ã In the UK, people see each other as equals to a greater extent, have less respect for authority, do not tolerate abuses of power, and aspire to change their status. There is also a gap between the UK and China in regards to individualism, with the UK scoring much higher (89 v. 20). In other words, in China there is a much higher degree of interdependence between people, with people defining themselves as part of a group.Ã In the UK the tendency is to think about oneself, and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family before society as a whole. Chinese people act to serve the group rather than themselves, and are likely to have much higher organisational commitment, as well as feeling it acceptable for closer groups (e.g. family) to get preferential treatment at work. Whereas UK people tend to be generally agreeable to those outside the preferred group, in highly collectivist societies those outside their group may be demonised. China are much more long-term oriented than the UK. There is a greater value placed on persistence and long-term goals. They are happy to save and be economical with resources, and have great respect for the past and for tradition.Ã By contrast, people in the UK are more able to enjoy the moment, and can be flexible with regards to goals. According to Trompenaars, China is one of the most particularist of the countries he looked at (Rugman and Collinson 2008), meaning that they look at the particular case and take all circumstances into account, rather than looking at general principles. For example, an employer in a particularist culture might excuse poor work behaviour if the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances offer a good reason.Ã In addition, China scores highly for affectivity, level of diffuseness and external control (Aswathappa 2010).Ã Ã That is, people conduct business in an emotional way, displaying emotions openly, do not have a strong sense of the barriers between public and private life, and feel that fate plays a stronger role in what happens to an individual or organisation than choice and self-motivation. While there are some similarities, China and UK have a very different cultural make-up, according to both sets of dimensions. What impact does this have on business styles?Ã This can be considered in terms of different areas.Ã For team work, for example, the high-power distance might mean that Chinese staff are uncomfortable with sharing feedback and frank discussions. However, their low individualism suggests that they would put the team before themselves, and would therefore be motivated by team-based rewards. UK staff, by contrast, might find sharing opinions as a team fairly easy, as they have a lower power distance, but might put their own interests before those of the team or organisation as a whole. In terms of communication, China have high affectivity, which suggests they might work better if communication styles are emotional rather than neutral. For example, written communications in the UK tend towards formal business English: a more open and friendly style might suit the Chinese market more.Ã Additionally, China scores highly for diffuseness against specificity. That is, there may be a tendency for communications to be more roundabout, with things left unsaid or communicated non-verbally. Diffuse cultures also have a higher degree of overlap between work and home (Amant 2007), which may mean that there is a greater reliance on shared experience upon which to base communication amongst the Chinese. There is also a need for a different management style, to take into account the greater power distance in China. Whereas UK workers respond better to power sharing and partnership styles, in China there may be a need to confirm the hierarchy, making it clear who is in charge, and defining roles carefully.Ã Ã However China also score highly for particularism, which suggests that management needs to take into account the details of each situation, rather than rigidly follow rules. Employees are likely to expect that rules can be bent to suit circumstance. Motivation and performance management are also likely to differ across the cultures. As mentioned, China scores much lower for individualism, which suggests that team-based rewards would be more motivating for them than in the UK.Ã Ã Ã Ã China are also markedly more long-term oriented, which means employees are likely to respond to goals set for the distant future, rather than needing near-instant reward.Ã There is also an issue here for motivating teams which consist of employees from both China and the UK, as each employee group is likely to have a different perspective on what is a motivating factor. The higher score for China on external control suggests that employees are less likely to enjoy spontaneous decision making. As they feel that the forces which drive business are located outside of themselves, this removes some of the responsibility for making decisions, and places it in the hands of fate, or higher authorities in the organisation. This is confirmed by the high power distance in China, which suggests that employees are very comfortable with letting decision making be carried out by those higher in the corporate hierarchy. By contrast, UK employees are likely to desire more participation in decisions. Negotiation should also be handled with care.Ã The higher affectivity and diffuse culture in China may mean that great attention needs to be paid to the non-verbal cues when negotiation takes place.Ã Ã The higher power distance might also mean that negations need to be carried out between staff perceived to be at similar levels. In addition to the dimensional analysis of culture, Tian (2007) suggests that negotiation in China is determined by a set of core traditional values including the importance of sincerity and trust, respect for age and hierarchy, maintaining social harmony and avoiding getting angry or being unpleasant to others.Ã This might mean that negotiation between two people of very different ages might be tricky, for example. 4. Conclusions Although they have some common areas, for example similarly masculine cultures and a similar tolerance of uncertainty,Ã China and the UK have key cultural differences which are likely to impact attempts to manage a diverse work team.Ã In particular, China employees are likely to be much more comfortable with hierarchy and unequal distribution of power, to value the group over the individual, to be focussed upon the long-term (but less likely to react spontaneously to the moment).Ã They are also more likely to expect rules to be bent to the particular case, to attribute the cause of events to circumstances or agents external to themselves, and to prefer styles of communication which heavily emphasise the non-verbal and tacit.Ã While, to a certain extent, globalisation has meant that cultural diversity is threatened, (Homann et al 2007), to be successful management needs to anticipate and plan for difference. 5. Recommendations Recognise that hierarchy has a more important role in China Adapt communication styles to pay attention to context, body-language and assumed information Plan team-work to incorporate two very different perspectives on the relative importance of the individual and the group Ensure Chinese employees are kept fully informed about the long-term perspective 6. References Aswathappa, K (2010) International Business (4th edn.), Tata McGraw-Hill Education, India. Berry, J W, Portinga, Y H and Pandey, J (1997) Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: Social behavior and applications (2nd edn.), John Berry. Brandt, L and Rawski, T G (2006) Chinas Great Economic Transformation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. Browaeys, M-J and Price, R (2008) Understanding cross-cultural management, Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex Daft, R L and Marcic, D (2010) Understanding Management (7th edn.), Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA. Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2012) Ã¢â¬ËChina: Country InformationÃ¢â¬â¢ [online] (cited 22nd February 2012), available from fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/asia-oceania/china Geert-hofstede.com (2012) Ã¢â¬ËWhat about China?Ã¢â¬â¢, [online] (cited 22nd February 2012), available from http://geert-hofstede.com/china.html Ã¢â¬ËWhat about china?Ã¢â¬â¢, Gore, L (2011) The Chinese Communist Party and Chinas capitalist revolution: the political impact of the market, Taylor Francis, Oxon. Grant, R G (2005) Communism: Systems of government, Ã Evans Brothers. Hofstede, G H (1984)Ã Cultures consequences: international differences in work-related values (2nd edn), SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA Homann, K, Koslowski, P and Luetge, C (2007) Globalisation and business ethics, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Aldershot, Hants. Lane, H W (2004) The Blackwell handbook of global management: a guide to managing complexity, John Wiley Sons / Blackwell, Oxon. Matsumoto, D and Juang, L (2012) Culture and Psychology (5th edn), Cengage Learning, Belmont CA Phillips, J and Gulley, S M (2011) Organizational Behavior: Tools for Success, Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA. Rugman, A M and Collinson, S (2008) International Business (5th edn.), Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex St. Amant, K (2007)Ã Linguistic and cultural online communication issues in the global age, Idea Group Inc, Hershey PA Sorrento, R M (2005) Culture and social behaviour, Routledge, UK Tian, Q (2004) A transcultural study of ethical perceptions and judgements between Chinese and German businessmen, Martin Meidenbauer Verlag, Germany Tian, X (2007) Managing international business in China, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Trompenaars, F (1993) Riding the waves of culture: understanding cultural diversity in business, Economist Books. Trompenaars, F and Hampden-Turner, C (2004) Managing people across cultures, Capstone. 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Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Comparison of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James theoretical positions - Essay Example The paper tells that Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James are historical psychologists whose work formed the foundation of psychology. Their theorems and practice in the field has had a great effect to this day. Most of the practicing psychologists in the present times borrow a lot from their work. However, this does not mean that their success in the field did not face challenges. The greatest of all the challenges for each one of them came from fellow psychologist. In efforts to outdo each other in their approach on psychological issues, similarities as well as differences developed that one cannot ignore. The four being the pioneers of psychology were passionate on getting better perceptive in the field. Their approaches aimed at getting facts that could better explain the psychological sphere of the human beings. This search for a better explanation led to common agreements on concepts like mental processes. They all believed that there was a conscious and a subconscious part of the human mind. These two spheres formed the basis for mental processes and Freud and Jung had similar views on dreams as a function of the unconscious mind. Jung in his theorem on individuation argued that human beings needed to incorporate both the conscious and unconscious mind to get the meanings to the dreams. Jung, Alder, and Freud agreed on the power of motive in human behavior. Childhood experience took the centre stage in the reason behind the motive. Cultural orientation, inferiority, and sexuality are all concepts that one gets from childhood. Since community and religious values influence a bigger part in them, the assimilation process into the childÃ¢â¬â¢s life is crucial because it affects relationships and psychological functioning of the individual (Meissner, 1987). Though the four could have differed in their theoretical positions of religion and the influence it has on human behavior, they all agreed that it plays a role in human psychology ( Dumont, 2010). Their theorems emphasized on religious interpretation of situations, and understanding of the world at large (Stone, 2011). Right from childhood, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s religion affects the way the child perceives different situations all the way to adulthood (Meissner, 1987). Contrast on Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James theoretical positions Just as the four psychologists are distinct, their theoretical positions equally had distinctions. They all had distinct approaches on the applicability of the concepts they all agreed were true. An example is in believing on mental processes that lead to human behavior. Human behavior as per FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s view required insight into thoughts and feelings for action to take place (Stone, 2011). Though Jung and Freud agreed on the unconscious part of dreams, their approaches on interpretation differed. Jung believed that religious nature formed the basis for interpretation hence dividing the unconscious into ind ividual and collective (Stone, 2011). For him, personal experience and concerns as well as collective religious believe influenced the interpretation (Dumont, 2010). However, this was different with Freud since to him mental processes and behavior took the centre of the dreams. James on the other hand came up with a completely different approach. To him, mental processes were a matter of evolutionary process meaning it is a function of constant changes (Stone, 2011). In his theoretical position on mental processes was more natural selection rather than emotions. Jung, Alder, and Freud agreed on the power of motive. While Freud believed that sexuality influenced motive, Jung and Adler had a different position. Jung considered culture,